KOMUNIKASI: SERBA ADA SERBA MAKNA

KOMUNIKASI: SERBA ADA SERBA MAKNA

Rp 287.000,00

VERSI DIGITAL

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Deskripsi

Sejarah perkembangan komunikasi dan ilmu komunikasi mempunyai hubungan erat dengan penggunaan simbol dan tanda dalam kehidupan manusia. Komunikasi manusia berada dalam suatu rentangan yang luas, dimulai dari proses pertukaran simbol dan tanda yang bermakna, baik melalui percakapan lisan maupun tertulis hingga didukung oleh kekuatan media massa. Perkembangan komunikasi manusia sejak dahulu sampai kini dapat dikatakan bermula dari  Speech yang terjadi 200.000 tahun lalu. Baru kira-kira 30.000 tahun yang lalu manusia mulai mengembangkan simbol, dan 7.000 tahun lalu mengembangkan writing. Selama periode abad ke- 20 sampai kini di abad ke-21, skala perkembangan komunikasi semakin cepat dan serba singkat lantaran didukung oleh perkembangan telecommunication yang diciptakan dan digunakan umat manusia.

Informasi Tambahan

Weight 1250 g
Berat Buku (gram)

1250

Cetakan

1

Halaman

xvi, 1086

ISBN

978-602-8730-60-0

Jenis Cover

Art Carton 260 gr

Jilid

Perfect Bending

Kertas Isi

Book Paper

Pengarang

Prof. Dr. Alo Liliweri, M.S.

Tahun Terbit

2011

Ukuran

19 X 26

DAFTAR ISI

KATA PENGANTAR v

BAB 1 DARI SIMBOL KE RETORIKA 1
Kita Mulai dari Simbol........................................................................................... 2
Retorika, dari Yunani Sampai Romawi................................................................... 7
Definisi Retorika...................................................................................................13
Catatan Akhir...................................................................................................... 16

BAB 2 ILMU KOMUNIKASI, DARI KAJIAN
SAMPAI HERMENEUTIKA 17
Dari Bidang Kajian Komunikasi............................................................................ 18
Menjadi Ilmu Komunikasi.....................................................................................23
Hermeneutika Ilmu Komunikasi.......................................................................... 26

BAB 3 KRITIK TERHADAP DEFINISI KOMUNIKASI 29
Tafsir Atas Etimologi?.......................................................................................... 30
Miskonsepsi Terhadap Komunikasi.......................................................................31
Definisi Komunikasi............................................................................................. 34
Unsur-unsur Definisi Komunikasi......................................................................... 39
Postulat Komunikasi............................................................................................ 43
Telaah Kritis Terhadap Definisi Komunikasi......................................................... 46
Kesimpulan......................................................................................................... 59

BAB 4 MEMODELKAN PROSES KOMUNIKASI 61
Proses sebagai Esensi Komunikasi....................................................................... 63
Filosofi Proses Komunikasi.................................................................................. 65
Memodelkan Proses Komunikasi..........................................................................74
Komunikasi Bekerja dalam Model....................................................................... 81
Metafora Model dalam Komunikasi..................................................................... 96
Kelebihan dan Keterbatasan Model....................................................................102

BAB 5 KRITIK TERHADAP EVOLUSI TEORETIS MODEL KOMUNIKASI 105
Evolusi Teori Komunikasi................................................................................... 106
Teori Komunikasi 1970-2002/2003...................................................................... 111
Teori Komunikasi Tahun 2002-2008....................................................................112
Konsep Teori...................................................................................................... 113
Tradisi Penelitian dan Pendekatan......................................................................114
Canonical Research.............................................................................................115
Anomali Teori Komunikasi dari David Holmes....................................................120

BAB 6 TUJUAN, PERANAN, DAN FUNGSI KOMUNIKASI 123
Hakikat dan Tujuan Komunikasi..........................................................................124
Peranan Komunikasi...........................................................................................132
Fungsi Komunikasi............................................................................................. 135

BAB 7 PERSEPSI DAN SIKAP DALAM KOMUNIKASI 151
Memahami Persepsi Komunikasi........................................................................152
Persepsi Psikologis.............................................................................................153
Persepsi Komunikasi Antarpersonal.................................................................... 157
Hambatan Persepsi............................................................................................161
Mengatasi Kesalahan Persepsi...........................................................................163
Memahami Hakikat Sikap..................................................................................165
Komponen Sikap............................................................................................... 166
Pengukuran Sikap............................................................................................. 166
Perubahan Sikap................................................................................................ 167
Beberapa Contoh Teori Perubahan Sikap........................................................... 169

BAB 8 KONTEKS KOMUNIKASI 181
Hakikat Konteks.................................................................................................182
Edward T. Hall dan Konteks Komunikasi Budaya.................................................187
Klasifikasi Konteks............................................................................................ 189
Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhi Konteks.......................................................191
Pendekatan Terhadap Konteks...........................................................................195
Pendekatan Fungsional..................................................................................... 196
Pendekatan Pengembangan Kognitif................................................................ 200
Pendekatan Situasional..................................................................................... 206

BAB 9 STRATEGI KOMUNIKASI 237
Manusia dan Strategi Hidup...............................................................................238
Beberapa Pendapat tentang Strategi................................................................ 240
Beberapa Catatan tentang Definisi.................................................................... 245
Tujuan Strategi Komunikasi............................................................................... 248
Bagaimana Perencanaan Strategi Komunikasi...................................................251
Mengembangkan Strategi Komunikasi yang Efektif...........................................254
Pendasaran Teori untuk Studi Komunikasi..........................................................257
Sepuluh Langkah Perencanaan Komunikasi.......................................................258

BAB 10 METODE KOMUNIKASI 261
Metode Sains dalam Ilmu Komunikasi............................................................... 262
Metode Praktisi Komunikasi.............................................................................. 264
Tiga Metode Utama Komunikasi........................................................................273

BAB 11 GAYA KOMUNIKASI 307
Memahami Gaya Komunikasi............................................................................ 308
Hakikat Tujuan Gaya Komunikasi........................................................................ 311
Beberapa Tampilan Gaya Komunikasi................................................................. 313
Apa Gaya Komunikasi Anda?..............................................................................330
BAB 12 BAHASA SEBAGAI ALAT KOMUNIKASI 333
Asal Usul Bahasa................................................................................................334
Situasi Bahasa Dunia.......................................................................................... 337
Fungsi Bahasa, Bahasa, dan Linguistik...............................................................339
Bahasa dan Semiotika....................................................................................... 344
Linguistik sebagai Studi tentang Bahasa............................................................352
Studi Utama Linguistik.......................................................................................359
Bahasa dan Masyarakat.....................................................................................363
Perubahan Bahasa............................................................................................. 373
Berkomunikasi dengan Bahasa Verbal................................................................ 377
Berkomunikasi dengan Bahasa Nonverbal.........................................................383

BAB 13 KOMUNIKASI DAN DIALOG 395
Makna dan Hakikat Dialog................................................................................ 396
Beberapa Jenis dan Tipe Dialog......................................................................... 402
Dialog Ala Martin Buber.....................................................................................407
Praktik Dialog....................................................................................................412
Dialog sebagai Komunikasi dari Hati................................................................. 416
Kritik Terhadap Teori Komunikasi.......................................................................418
Kelebihan dan Kekurangan Dialog..................................................................... 422
Sepuluh Langkah Dialog Komunitas.................................................................. 426
Catatan Kritis.................................................................................................... 428

BAB 14 KOMUNIKASI DAN PERDAMAIAN 433
Makna Perdamaian........................................................................................... 434
Peace-Building dan Aplikasi Hipotesis Kontak.....................................................437
Peacemaking Theories........................................................................................ 441
Lima Paradigma Perdamaian............................................................................ 448

BAB 15 KOMUNIKASI DAN PUBLISITAS 455
Pengertian Publisitas......................................................................................... 456
Unsur-unsur Publisitas....................................................................................... 460
Fungsi Publisitas............................................................................................... 461
Prinsip-prinsip Dasar Publisitas......................................................................... 463
Sepuluh Alasan Anda Perlu Publisitas................................................................ 466
Tipe-tipe Publisitas........................................................................................... 469
Delapan Tips Memulai Publisitas....................................................................... 480
Efektivitas Publisitas......................................................................................... 482
Merencanakan Publisitas.................................................................................. 484
Membarui Desain Publisitas.............................................................................. 491

BAB 16 KOMUNIKASI DAN PROMOSI 493
Beberapa Term Selain Promosi.......................................................................... 494
Promosi sebagai Bagian dari Pemasaran........................................................... 498
Perencanaan Promosi........................................................................................507
Promosi, Bagian dari Komunikasi Pemasaran.....................................................514

BAB 17 KOMUNIKASI DAN PERIKLANAN 529
Mitos tentang Iklan............................................................................................530
Catatan Singkat Sejarah Periklanan....................................................................532
Memahami Makna Iklan dalam Definisi..............................................................534
Tujuan Iklan........................................................................................................538
Jenis-jenis Iklan..................................................................................................545
Bagaimana Cara Kerja Iklan?..............................................................................553
Tipe-tipe dan Teknik Iklan.................................................................................. 569
Beberapa Catatan tentang Efek Iklan................................................................. 575
Kritik Terhadap Iklan..........................................................................................583
Beberapa Contoh Rancangan Efek Iklan.............................................................587
Tata Krama Periklanan Indonesia.......................................................................597

BAB 18 KOMUNIKASI DAN PAMERAN 615
Memahami Arti Pameran.................................................................................. 616
Catatan tentang Sejarah Pameran.................................................................... 619
Manfaat Pameran..............................................................................................621
Tampilan Pameran............................................................................................ 622
Beberapa Kriteria Pameran................................................................................623
Pameran dan Desain Komunikasi.......................................................................627
Berkomunikasi Lewat Tanda Sign (Visual).......................................................... 630
Empat Model Pendekatan Pameran...................................................................637
Sedikit tentang Pameran Dagang..................................................................... 644
”12 Top Tips” untuk Sukses Pameran!................................................................ 646

BAB 19 KOMUNIKASI DAN PUBLIC RELATIONS 649
Asal Usul Public Relations.................................................................................. 650
Empat Model Public Relations............................................................................ 652
Pengertian dan Unsur Public Relations............................................................... 654
Falsafah Public Relations.................................................................................... 656
Peranan Public Relations.....................................................................................657
Fungsi Public Relations...................................................................................... 658
Syarat-syarat Pejabat Public Relations............................................................... 659
Mencegah Alienasi Organisasi dan Relasi Berkelanjutan.................................... 663
Sukses Public Relations...................................................................................... 664

BAB 20 KOMUNIKASI DAN KAMPANYE 671
Kampanye sebagai Komunikasi Publik...............................................................672
Hakikat Studi Komunikasi-Kampanye................................................................ 677
Dua Tipe Utama Kampanye............................................................................... 683
Strategi Kampanye........................................................................................... 686
Kampanye Politik............................................................................................... 711
Kampanye Negatif.............................................................................................716
Lima Jenis Kampanye Murah..............................................................................719
Ilustrasi Beberapa Gaya Kampanye.................................................................... 721
Evaluasi Kampanye............................................................................................728
Teori tentang Kampanye dan Perubahan............................................................ 737

BAB 21 KOMUNIKASI DAN PROPAGANDA 753
Bagaimana Propaganda Dimulai?......................................................................754
Memahami Makna Propaganda.........................................................................768
Kesimpulan Definisi, Formula ‘Stasm’................................................................ 777
Propaganda, Publisitas, Humas, dan Kampanye.................................................781
Karakteristik Utama Propaganda.......................................................................785
Propaganda dan Kontrol....................................................................................786
Tujuan dan Sasaran Propaganda........................................................................789
Bagaimana Kerja Propaganda?..........................................................................791
Siapa Pengguna Propaganda?............................................................................793
Tipe, Kategori, dan Jenis Propaganda................................................................794
Sepuluh Alasan Belajar Propaganda...................................................................798
Teknik-teknik Propaganda................................................................................. 800
Model Teoretis Propaganda................................................................................825

BAB 22 KOMUNIKASI, INFORMASI, DAN TEKNOLOGI 837
Komunikasi sebagai Informasi........................................................................... 838
Komunikasi sebagai Teknologi.......................................................................... 846

BAB 23 MEDIA KOMUNIKASI 871
Sejarah Media....................................................................................................872
Media dari Komunikasi Massa............................................................................873
Media sebagai Institusi Sosial.............................................................................876
Media sebagai Sistem Sosial..............................................................................878
Media sebagai Agen Sosialisasi......................................................................... 880
Revolusi Telekomunikasi.................................................................................... 882
Kecenderungan Analisis Efek............................................................................. 884
Pendekatan Studi Efek Komunikasi Massa.........................................................887
Efek Media Massa............................................................................................. 889
Media Perubahan Sosial.................................................................................... 891

BAB 24 KOMUNIKASI DAN JURNALISTIK 893
Sejarah Jurnalistik............................................................................................. 894
Apa Itu Jurnalistik?............................................................................................ 898
Jurnalistik dan Objektivitas................................................................................903
Jurnalistik Ada di Dalam Berita.......................................................................... 905
Jurnalistik: Konteks dan Teknik...........................................................................917
Beberapa Jenis Gaya Jurnalisme.........................................................................923
Standar Etika Jurnalistik.....................................................................................931
Jurnalistik dan Demokrasi..................................................................................935

BAB 25 NONVIOLENT COMMUNICATION 977
Awal Mula Nonviolent Communication................................................................978
Hakikat Nonviolent Communication....................................................................979
Transformasi Konflik dan Relasi Melalui NVC......................................................987
Keuntungan Perubahan Hidup Melalui NVC...................................................... 991
Dominasi Budaya dan Reformasi Pendidikan..................................................... 993
Wawancara dengan Rosenberg......................................................................... 994
BAB 26 NONHUMAN COMMUNICATION 1003
Hakikat Komunikasi Binatang..........................................................................1004
Komunikasi Tanaman.......................................................................................1030
Komunikasi Akustik.......................................................................................... 1035
Komunikasi Kimiawi.........................................................................................1036
Berkomunikasi Melalui Warna..........................................................................1039

BAB 27 METAKOMUNIKASI 1043
Makna Serba “Meta”........................................................................................1044
Apa Itu Metakomunikasi?.................................................................................1045
Awal Mula Metakomunikasi.............................................................................1047
Makna Metakomunikasi................................................................................... 1051
Metakomunikasi dan Metalanguage?...............................................................1052
Metakomunikasi: Belajar Tanpa Henti..............................................................1056
Metakomunikasi dan Human Relationships....................................................... 1057
Metakomunikasi, Metakonsep, dan Refleksi Bahasa.........................................1062
DAFTAR PUSTAKA 1065
TENTANG PENULIS 1085

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